Inside: Artists and Writers in Reading Prison

Inside

HM Prison Reading, Reading
04 September 2016 - 04 December 2016
Tickets
People point to Reading Gaol, and say ‘There is where the artistic life leads a man.’

HM Prison Reading opens for the first time to the public as artists, writers, and performers respond to its most notorious inmate: Oscar Wilde. Wilde’s time in jail was devastating, the work produced in result enduring. Incarcerated in solitary confinement he wrote De Profundis, an extended letter to his lover Lord Alfred Douglas; on release he produced his last work, The Ballad of Reading Gaol.

At this resonant site, the penal regime Wilde suffered is explored through archives, leading through to the installation of new works by artists such as Nan Goldin, Marlene Dumas, and Steve McQueen in the previously inaccessible – or inescapable – cells and corridors.

In some cells, visitors will find letters on the theme of state-enforced separation from around the world by writers including Binyavanga Wainaina, Ai Weiwei, and Anne Carson. Each Sunday throughout the exhibition, Wilde’s harrowing and heartfelt De Profundis will be performed live in the former prison chapel by readers including Patti Smith, Colm Tóibín, and Ben Whishaw. 

This exhibition brings together that which Wilde's final works so eloquently delineated: the pain of separation, the excruciatingly slow passage of time, betrayal, redemption, and love.


This behind the scenes video is also available to watch on Vimeo and YouTube.

For more information download the exhibition guide here


Image: Robert Gober, Waterfall (2015 – 2016) installed at Reading Prison as part of Inside: Artists and Writers in Reading Prison. Photograph: Marcus J Leith

Rupert Everett reads The Ballad of Reading Gaol

21 minutes 29 seconds
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Rupert Everett reads The Ballad of Reading Gaol

Award-winning actor Rupert Everett read Oscar Wilde’s final work The Ballad of Reading Gaol – written in the year following Wilde's release on 19 May 1897 and first published in 1898 – in the old chapel in Reading Prison, on Sunday 4 December 2016.


This video is also available to watch on Vimeo and YouTube.


Still: Rupert Everett reading Oscar Wilde's The Ballad of Reading Gaol using Jean-Michel Pancin's In Memoriam (2016) (the original wooden door to Oscar Wilde’s cell) as a stage in the old chapel, 4 December 2016.

Artists

Vija Celmins, Rita Donagh, Peter Dreher, Marlene Dumas, Robert Gober, Nan Goldin, Felix Gonzalez-Torres, Richard Hamilton, Roni Horn, Steve McQueen, Jean-Michel Pancin, Doris Salcedo, Wolfgang Tillmans, and Oscar Wilde
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Artists

The works installed respond to both the prison and to Wilde's experiences of incarceration.

Vija Celmins

Vija Celmins' works investigate the nature of physical and metaphorical presence, as well as the spatial implications of drawing. A master of several mediums, including multiple printmaking processes, oil painting, and charcoal, Celmins matches a tangible sense of space with fastidious detail in each work. Her serial explorations of a single subject include night skies, the arid desert floor and the intricacies of a spider’s web.

Rita Donagh

Rita Donagh's works centre on particular themes that combine personal and political concerns, events mediated in the press and consumed in the public sphere. Donagh often employs cartographic methods of geometric projection in order to problematize the relation between subjective experience and abstract representations of political and symbolic power.

Peter Dreher

Peter Dreher's work highlights minute changes in our surroundings, deliberately marking the passage of time and ultimately providing evidence of the artist’s existence. His occupation with time and the subjectivity of visual experience is playfully captured in his mesmeric series Day by Day, Good Day, eliciting profoundness in the abstract reflections of a common object. 

Marlene Dumas

Marlene Dumas' work consistently explores constructions of identity and the fluid distinctions between the public and the private, often probing questions of gender, race, sexuality, and economic inequality. Dumas merges socio-political themes with personal experience and art-historical antecedents to create a unique perspective on the most salient and controversial issues facing contemporary society.

Robert Gober

Robert Gober's sculptures are rife with meaning and reference, exploring sexuality, relationships, nature, politics, and religion. He meticulously handcrafts common household items, human body parts, and objects of devotion – from bags of cat litter to crucifixes and church pews – to emphasise the fragility of humankind. Through selective exaggerations and meaningful alterations, Gober mixes the real with the surreal in ways that disorient the viewer.

Nan Goldin

Nan Goldin documents with unflinching candor intensely personal, spontaneous, sexual, and transgressive photographs of herself and those closest to her, especially in the LGBTQA community. Unlike the cool detachment of documentary photography, it is the empathy reflected in these diaristic, snapshot like photographs, that heralded her work as a groundbreaking contribution to fine art photography.

Felix Gonzalez-Torres

Felix Gonzalez-Torres' work focused on transforming the everyday into meditations on love and loss, formation and decay: he combined household and found objects with the potential to change over time, with more enduring materials. While Gonzalez-Torres was deeply affected by the AIDS epidemic at the time, his artworks have an ongoing political resonance and universal associations with intimacy and loneliness. 

Richard Hamilton

Throughout his career Richard Hamilton broke down hierarchies of artistic value, explored the relationship between fine art, product design, and popular culture. A political, outward-looking multimedia experimenter – prophetic about the increasing convergence of public and private space – Hamilton was arguably the first Pop artist.

Roni Horn

Artist Roni Horn first collaborated with Artangel on Library of Water, a permanent work on the south-west coast of Iceland, a country she had been making regular visits to since the mid-70s. Returning to water as well as to Artangel, she contributed a piece on London's River Thames for the Hearts of Darkness series as part of A Room for London in 2012 and then to Inside in 2016.

Steve McQueen

Artist and director Steve McQueen first collaborated with Artangel on Carib's Leap/Western Deep, an immersive cinematic installation which premiered at Documenta in 2002. Perhaps best known for his heavy-hitting feature films Hunger, Shame, and the Oscar-winning 12 Years a Slave, these movies are just one element of his long-standing conceptual video art practice. 

Jean-Michel Pancin

Artist Jean-Michel Pancin produced a series of works in response to the now-closed Sainte Anne prison in Avignon between 2010 and 2012. Finding the bundles of contraband thrown by inmates' families that hadn't quite made it over the prison walls, he presented these along with rubbings of hearts carved onto the courtyard walls, photographs of the light on the walls of prison cells, and the actual cell doors.

Doris Salcedo

Sculptor Doris Salcedo's work, often on themes of displacement, loss, and trauma, has turned recently to the plight of the incarcerated, something she described as “like being dead in life”.

Wolfgang Tillmans

Wolfgang Tillmans was the first photographer and first non-British artist to receive the Turner Prize (2000). His work pairs intimacy and playfulness with social critique and the persistent questioning of existing values and hierarchies. Tillmans opened the non-profit exhibition space Between Bridges with a show of works by artist and activist David Wojnarowicz, who collaborated with Artangel on Mundo Positive (1992).

Oscar Wilde

In 1895, playwright, writer, and wit Oscar Wilde was sentenced to two years hard labour in prison. Incarcerated in Reading Jail, Wilde wrote De Profundis in the form of a letter to his lover "Bosie" (Lord Alfred Douglas). On his release, in exile in France, he wrote the poem The Ballad of Reading Gaol. This was published under the pen name C.3.3. which refers to the space Wilde had occupied for the duration of his incarceration: cell block C, landing 3, cell 3. It would be Wilde's last work.


Image: Steve McQueen's work Weight (2016) installed as part of Inside: Artists and Writers in Reading Prison. Photograph: Sandra Keating, 3 September 2016

Readers

Neil Bartlett, Ralph Fiennes, Kathryn Hunter, Ragnar Kjartansson, Maxine Peake, Lemn Sissay, Patti Smith, Colm Tóibín, and Ben Whishaw
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Readers

7 people were invited to read from Oscar Wilde's De Profundis in the old chapel which rises through the first and second floors of the Victorian wing of Reading Prison. Audiences can purchase tickets to attend these events on Sundays, or watch the video recording of a full reading by Neil Bartlett online.

Neil Bartlett

In 1997, Bartlett collaborated with Artangel on a solo performance work The Seven Sacraments Of Nicolas Poussin, developed the following year into a dramatic oratorio. In 2006, he participated in an event with George Chakravati as part of the latter's Artangel project To the Man in My Dreams

Since his first novel – Who Was That Man? A Present for Mr. Oscar Wilde (1989) – Neil Bartlett has explored Wilde's works, life, and influence through writing, the staging of Wilde's works for theatre and radio, and In Extremis: A Love Letter (2000), an original play commissioned by National Theatre for the 100th anniversary of Wilde's death​.

Ralph Fiennes

One of the leading actors of his generation, Ralph Fiennes  has received numerous awards and nominations for his diverse work across film, theatre and television. Fiennes is a UNICEF ambassabor and patron of the eponomyus Constant Gardener Trust, set up by the cast and crew during filming in Kenya. His most recent London stage role was Richard III at the Almeida Theatre.

Kathryn Hunter

The first woman to play King Lear professionally on the British stage, Kathryn Hunter's physical presence and range has led her to not only play roles typically reserved for male actors, but metamorphose into that of other creatures. An Artistic Associate at the RSC, she debuted as director with a touring production of Othello.

Ragnar Kjartansson

Ragnar Kjartansson, combines stage traditions with experiments in endurance to create opulent, ironic performances and video installations. These durational experiences, push past the anxiety and ennui of repetitious situations to convey a state of joy and transcendence. Kjartansson is the youngest artist to have represented Iceland at the Venice Biennale.

Maxine Peake

Maxine Peake is renowned for the many roles she has made her own in television, film, radio, and on stage, including a radical reworking of Shakespeare's Hamlet in which she played the title role. She memorably performed a version of Shelley's The Masque of Anarchy for the Manchester International Festival in 2015.

Lemn Sissay

An internationally acclaimed performance poet, Lemn Sissay's Landmark Poems, one of which was unveiled by Bishop Desmond Tutu, are installed throughout Manchester and London. His autobiographical drama, Something Dark, dealing with the search for his family after being fostered was adapted for radio, winning a Race in the Media Award. 

Patti Smith

Poet, writer and music legend Patti Smith first read Oscar Wilde’s De Profundis as a teenager, since when she has cited the writer in performances and listed his books amongst her favourites. In 1989, similarly separated from someone she loved, Smith wrote in a letter to artist Robert Mapplethorpe, “You drew me from the darkest period of my young life,” so composing an uncanny parallel with the title of Wilde’s letter, which translates from the Latin as “from the depths”.

Colm Tóibín

Award-winning novelist Colm Tóibín first collaborated with Artangel on the publication accompanying Die Familie Schneider. He later recorded his stay on the Roi des Belges for A Room For London. Tóibín has edited and introduced a new selection of Oscar Wilde's prison letters and poetry in Penguin Classics, De Profundis and Other Prison Writings. His novel Brooklyn was recently adapted into an Oscar-winning film.

Ben Whishaw

Ben Whishaw, an established stage and film actor, has made a métier of portraying the damaged and damned with emotional volatility and candour: from Keats to John Proctor. Whishaw is the youngest actor to secure a reprised role as Q in the James Bond series.


Production still: Ben Whishaw reading Oscar Wilde's De Profundis in the old chapel at Reading Prison, Sunday 11 September 2016, courtesy of Real Time

Writers

Ai Weiwei, Tahmima Anam, Anne Carson, Joe Dunthorne, Deborah Levy, Danny Morrison, Gillian Slovo, Binyavanga Wainaina, and Jeanette Winterson
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Writers

Writers were invited to compose a letter to a loved one from whom they have been separated by state enforcement in response. Hand-written, typed, and audio-recorded versions of these Letters of Separation are installed in cells at Reading Prison. You can also listen to a selection online.

Ai Weiwei

Artist Ai Weiwei was famously detained in China, then released to house arrest in 2011, his passport confiscated. Some of Ai’s best known works are installations – commenting on creative freedom, censorship and human rights – sparking dialogue between traditional Chinese modes of thought and production, and the contemporary world. A retrospective of his work was held at the Royal Academy, London in 2015.

Tahmima Anam

Inspired by her parents – both deeply involved in the campaign for Bangladeshi independence – award-winning author Tahmima Anam's Bengal Trilogy, chronicles three generations of a family from the Bangladesh war of independence to the present day. The research for her books comes partly from interviews conducted with family members and Bangladeshis who experienced the conflict. 

Anne Carson

Anne Carson first worked with Artangel as a Writer in Residency for Vatnssafn/Library of Water. Carson gave a reading of her poem Cage a Swallow Can’t You But You Can’t Swallow a Cage, written with Bob Currie during their residency. Her first book, Eros the Bittersweet, was named one of the 100 best nonfiction books of all time by the Modern Library. 

Joe Dunthorne

Joe Dunthorne is a critically acclaimed Welsh author whose debut novel Submarine, the story of a dysfunctional family in Swansea, was translated into sixteen languages and adapted for film by Richard Ayoade. His second novel, Wild Abandon, the tragicomic story of an imploding commune in South Wales, won the Encore Award.

Deborah Levy

Deborah Levy emigrated to England from South Africa on the release of her father, a member of the ANC and political prisoner of apartheid. She often weaves themes of identity, exile, and dislocation into her award-winning narrative fiction, plays and radio adaptations. Levy was nominated for the Booker Prize for Swimming Home in 2012.

Danny Morrison

Danny Morrison, secretary of the Bobby Sands Trust and former National Director of Publicity for Sinn Féin, served eight years’ imprisonment in Long Kesh during the Troubles in Northern Ireland. During this time he contributed articles to An Phoblacht and An Glór Gafa / Captive Voice, having since authored several novels and anthologies.

Gillian Slovo

Gillian Slovo's memoir Every Secret Thing: My Family, My Country is an account of her relationship with her parents, both heavily involved in the anti-apartheid movement. She co-authored the internationally staged play Guantanamo: Honor Bound to Defend Freedom, collecting first-hand accounts from ex-prisoners and relatives of the detained.

Binyavanga Wainaina

Binyavanga Wainaina, Director of the Chinua Achebe Center for African Writers and Artists at Bard College, responded to a wave of anti-gay laws in Nigeria by publicly outing himself in his short story I Am a Homosexual, Mum, calling it the lost chapter of his memoir One Day I Will Write About This Place. 

Jeanette Winterson

Award-winning author Jeanette Winterson first collaborated with Artangel on Longplayer as a participant in the Long Conversation, marking the project's 10th anniversary. She later recorded material written during her stay on board A Room For London. Winterson's genre-bending and highly individual novels, memoirs and books for young people herald her as one of the most original voices in contemporary British literature.


Image: Vija Celmins's Untitled #1 (2016) and the hand-written, typed, and audio-recorded Letter to My Unborn Daughter (2016) by Tahmima Anam installed in a cell at Reading Prison. Photograph: Marcus J Leith, 30 August 2016 

Audio: Letters of Separation

Listen to readings of the letters
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Letters of Separation

For the first year of his sentence, Oscar Wilde was forbidden to write anything beyond the occasional letter. In 1896 a more sympathetic governor took charge and allowed Wilde sufficient paper to write De Profundis. Taking their cue from Wilde’s literary reflection on his separation, nine contemporary writers have composed a letter to a loved one from whom they have been separated by state enforcement. In some cases, these are written from direct personal experience of imprisonment. 

Read and listen to each of the letters here


Ai Weiwei writes to his young son during his own internment without trial for 81 days by the Chinese authorities in 2011.

Tahmima Anam imagines herself imprisoned and pregnant, addressing a letter to her unborn child.

Anne Carson’s letter is from the condemned Socrates to his old friend Krito.

Joe Dunthorne not only imagines his own confinement, but also the constraints of a dystopian world where the use of only one vowel is permitted.

Deborah Levy writes to Oscar Wilde himself, questioning what a man is and the motives of those who condemned him to imprisonment.

Danny Morrison imagines a final letter from Irish revolutionary Reginald Dunne who was involved in the 1916 Easter Rising and held in Wandsworth Prison.

Gillian Slovo writes to her mother Ruth First, who was murdered by the South African secret service in Mozambique whilst living in exile. 

Binyavanga Wainaina writes to his dead mother about the struggle to reveal his homosexuality and to tell her that he is in love.

Jeanette Winterson, inspired by Shakespeare’s The Winter’s Tale, imagines a letter from Hermione to Perdita written during the sixteen years she is adopted by persons unknown, following her father’s savage abandonment and her mother’s presumed death.


The Letters of Separation are also available to listen to on Soundcloud


Image: Anne Carson's letter from the condemned Socrates to his old friend Krito (2016) installed as part of Inside: Artists and Writers in Reading Prison. Photograph: Sandra Keating, 3 September 2016

Neil Bartlett reads De Profundis

6 hours and 12 minutes
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Oscar Wilde's De Profundis

Writer and performer Neil Bartlett read Wilde’s De Profundis – a 50,000-word letter to Wilde's lover and betrayer ‘Bosie’ – in its entirety, with no breaks, in the old chapel in Reading Prison. The reading took six hours and 12 minutes.

This video is also available to watch on YouTube.

Originally filmed and broadcast live online 12:00 – 18:30 BST Sunday 4 September 2016 by Kinura.


BBC Radio 4 also broadcast a reading of an abridged version of De Profundis by actor Stephen Rea, Sunday 11 September, which is available to hear until 9 October 2016.


Image: Jean-Michel Pancin's In Memoriam (2016) (the original wooden door to Oscar Wilde’s cell) installed in the old chapel as seen the night of the project opening, before Neil Bartlett read from Oscar Wilde's De Profundis using Pancin's work as a stage. Photograph: Will Eckersley, September 2016.

Book: Inside: Artists and Writers in Reading Prison

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Inside: Artists and Writers in Reading Prison

£19.95 from Cornerhouse

In the great prison where I was then incarcerated, I was merely the figure and the letter of a little cell in a long gallery. One of a thousand lifeless numbers, as of a thousand lifeless lives.’– Oscar Wilde, De Profundis

This book includes extensive excerpts from De Profundis alongside new letters by Ai Weiwei, Tahmima Anam, Anne Carson, Joe Dunthorne, Deborah Levy, Danny Morrison, Gillian Slovo, Binyavanga Wainaina and Jeanette Winterson reflecting on real and imaginary separations. Also featured are colour photographs of works installed inside Reading Prison by artists including Vija Celmins, Marlene Dumas, Richard Hamilton, Nan Goldin, Felix Gonzalez-Torres, Roni Horn, Steve McQueen, and Wolfgang Tillmans.

  • Published by Artangel
  • Designed by A Practice for Everyday Life
  • 180pp
  • Illustrations colour
  • Hardback
  • 265mm x 210mm
  • ISBN: 9781902201313

Oscar Wilde

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In the great prison where I was then incarcerated, I was merely the figure and the letter of a little cell in a long gallery. One of a thousand lifeless numbers, as of a thousand lifeless lives. – Oscar Wilde, De Profundis

Oscar Wilde

Yet each man kills the thing he loves. – Oscar Wilde, The Ballad of Reading Gaol

In 1895, playwright, writer, and poet Oscar Wilde was sentenced to two years hard labour in prison on his conviction for gross indecency with other men. Most of this time was spent in what is now known as HM Prison Reading.

Under the penal regime of the time, the Separate System, prisoners were kept in isolation and not allowed to speak with each other. Wilde, to begin with, had little access to books other than the Bible and was required to perform manual tasks all day as his sentence decreed. After relocating to Reading, he was given literature and was enabled to write, but only on one piece of paper at a time. It was under these restrictions that he wrote De Profundis, a letter to “Bosie”, his lover and betrayer Lord Alfred Douglas.

A stark departure from Wilde's previously known flamboyant wit and extravagant style, De Profundis – literally “from the depths” – charts the inescapable darkness brought about by bad living conditions and nutrition, hard labour, and emotional isolation in over 50,000 words. The letter was kept in the prison and never sent, instead returned complete to Wilde at the end of his sentence and left unpublished until after his death. The original manuscript is now in the collection of the British Library.

On his release in May 1897, Wilde went on to write The Ballad of Reading Gaol. This poem was published in 1898 under the pen name C.3.3. which refers to the space Wilde had occupied for the duration of his incarceration: cell block C, landing 3, cell 3. It would be Wilde's last work before his death in 1900, a death at the cause no doubt of his incarceration and the impoverishment and exile that consequently followed it.

Audio: A History of Reading Prison

16 minutes 5 seconds
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A History of Reading Prison

Listen to Berkshire County Archivist Mark Stevens and Reading Prison caretaker Sandy Frew as they walk through the prison noting points of interest and delve into the county archives to discover the ways of life in the Victorian prison and the details of Oscar Wilde's incarceration.

Produced by Chalk and Blade for Artangel


Three Witness Statements are available to listen to on Soundcloud.


Image: The entrance to the Victorian wing of HM Prison Reading, designed and completed in 1844 by George Gilbert Scott, June 2016. Photograph: Morley von Sternberg

Press

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You feel the cool air, the balm of light and nature, an inaccessible world of wonder and awful things. – Adrian Searle, the Guardian

Selected Press

The cruciform architecture is insistently ecclesiastical; the cells are unchanged; the silence remains oppressive. – Laura Cummings, the Observer, 4 September 2016
The most powerful and complex text remains De Profundis. In Whishaw’s hands, Wilde’s pained invective felt raw, real and beautiful. And, tellingly, not durational in the slightest. – Gareth Harris on Ben Whishaw's De Profundis reading, The Financial Times, 12 September 2016
Arranged at the threshold to several cells, replacing their metal doors, the beads offer an incongruous note of glamour and excitement, somehow evoking the capacity of the human spirit to leave behind the material realities of confinement, and soar, freewheeling and unfettered, in the empyrean sphere of the imagination. – Alastair Sooke on Felix Gonzalez-Torres, The Telegraph, 1 September 2016
In one group of cells hang drawings of night skies, starfields and constellations pricking the blackness. These images by Vija Celmins are less about escape than time arrested. Their beautiful solemnity is something other than mental flight. – Adrian Searle on Vija Celmins, the Guardian, 5 September 2016

About Reading Prison

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Reading Prison

Originally built as a house of corrections by The Berkshire County Justices in 1786, the site was subsequently enlarged to become the County Gaol in 1793. Replacing earlier buildings on the site, the current Grade || listed cruciform structure was opened in July 1844. A notable example of early Victorian prison architecture designed by George Gilbert Scott and William Bonython Moffat – with the intention to implement the Separate System, the brutal penal technique at the time – its form was based upon the pioneering design for Pentonville Prison constructed two years prior.  

The gaol closed in the winter of 1915 as prison populations diminished due to wartime employment opportunities. Between 1916 and 1919 it was used as an internment centre to hold foreign nationals suspected of spying or having anti-British sympathies, alongside Irish prisoners involved in the Easter Rising. Inmates were interned without trial under the terms of 1914 Defence of the Realm Act and housed in the E Wing which, had previously housed female prisoners.

Following this, the facility  was used for storage by various government departments – and as a wartime Canadian military detention centre during the latter part of WWII – before becoming a borstal in 1951. Reopeed as a local prison in 1969 after extensive demolition, reconstruction and alteration to the site, only the cruciform structure remained. It served as a Remand Centre and Young Offenders Institution, housing males aged 18 to 21, from 1992 until closure on 4 September 2013.


Image: Reading Gaol floor plans, drawn in the office of George Gilbert Scott and William Bonython Moffatt c1842. Courtesy of © Berkshire Record Office

Credits

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Who made this possible?

Credits

Inside is part of University of Reading's 'Reading International', which is supported using public funding by the National Lottery through the Arts Council's Ambition for Excellence Programme. Inside has been made possible with the kind cooperation of the Ministry of Justice and is presented as part of Reading 2016, Reading's Year Of Culture. Generously supported by Dayana Tamendarova, and with further support from The Henry Moore Foundation, Jack Kirkland, Matthew Marks Gallery, Sylvie Winckler and those who wish to remain anonymous. 

Artangel is generously supported by Arts Council England, and by the private patronage of The Artangel International CircleSpecial AngelsGuardian Angels and The Company of Angels.


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